Saturday, April 20, 2013

DRUG TRAFFICKING AND THE UNDER-COVER ROLE OF STATE

The use of drugs is almost as old as human civilization. But more addictive and
dangerous synthetic drugs were introduced by western countries, particularly united state of
America during modern era. Before further discussion we have to know about the drugs. A
drug is defined by U. S. law as any substance (other than food or device) intended for use in the
diagnosis, cure, relief, treatment or prevention of disease or intended to affect the structure or
function of the body. This comprehensive definition 1 is important for legal purpose, but is much
complex for everyday use. In simpler manner drug may be defined as any chemical substance
that affects the body and its processes.
There are two types of drugs- soft and hard.2 Soft drug is less addictive and less harmful.
A hard drug is harshly addictive and much more dangerous for individual and society as well.
Soft drugs are used since a long time in different cultures but it may be highly surprising for
any lay person to know that various modern hard drugs were invented and circulated with the
help of state agencies during Second World War and the era of Cold War. The most popular
form of hard drug LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was discovered by industrial chemist Albert
Hoffman. LSD works through the advantage of some processes involved in the brain function.
The LSD was used by American agencies during the cold war to trace important
information from agents of opponent countries. For this purpose several experiments &
researches were conducted by C.I.A. The deputy director of the CIA revealed that over thirty
universities and institutions were involved in an "extensive testing & Experimentation" program
which included covert drug tests on un-witting citizens". At least one death that of Dr. Olson,
resulted from these activities. These tests were not supposed to carry much scientific importance
as agents involved in the monitoring had no proper scientific background.
The CIA program, known principally by the codename MKULTRA, began in 1950
and was supposed to be the counter of Soviet, Chinese, and Korean mind- control techniques.
Because most of the MKULTRA records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 by order of then
Director of central intelligence Richard Helms, it is impossible to have a complete understanding
of CIA programs. CIA and FBI also used LSD to disintegrate the youth unrest under the
direction of American Government. 3
In the 1960's the hippie movement had the profound effect on western culture influencing
thought, music, art and clothing.4 Thousands of young Americans accumulated in San Francisco.
Although the movement was based in San Francisco, its effects were felt around the world and
culminated in the summer of love in 1967 and music festival at Woodstock in 1969. Drugs were
important for the hippies and LSD was one of these. LSD in particular was attractive owing

to its ability to induce altered states of consciousness with changes to perception. CIA was
successful in breaking the youth unrest and hippie movement by using the drugs. Leaders, who
were playing vital role for the movement, were made addicted and after that many of them were
eliminated.
The practice of using drugs and its commercial aspect is not only limited to American agencies
but is a worldwide phenomenon. According to a study commenced by the Palaung Women's
Organization in 2010, the amount of opium being cultivated in Burma's northern Shan State has
been constantly increasing. Different surveys conducted by UN agencies have shown that opium
cultivated area increased four to five times. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
(UNODC), and the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) are involved in these surveys.
Between 2007-2009, PWO conducted field surveys in Namkham and Mantong. Namkham and
Mantong are both fully under the control of the SPDC. These areas have an extensive security
system including Burma Army, police, and government supported village militia.
A former Canadian military officer, who later served as the advisor to Saudi royal family
has concluded that a full-scale Pakistani military assault on the Taliban areas in Pakistan is not
very much possible because of drug money that the Pakistani army gets from those areas and
Taliban.
Thus we can conclude that different states are following double standards on the issue of
drugs. Open policy is to crush the drug trafficking whether hidden policies promote it. It happen
due to the following reason-
1. Intelligence agencies require too much capital for running their undercover operations.
2. They require money for weapon and salaries for their locale agents operating in enemy
areas.
3. Agencies requires unaccounted money and unofficial logistic support in different parts of
world including enemy territories and this is made easily available the dealing with drug
traffickers.
Under such circumstances it is hard to believe that in near future it would be
possible to control drugs. It can be possible only through the high level international
understanding and consensus among different states, and this is achievable only through
the high level awareness and pin pointed activism by the public and non government
organization.

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